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Hydro-Fracturing Process

Hydro-Fracturing Process
Hydro-Fracturing is process by which water is forced into an existing bore well to pressurise, open out and clean out of non-water producing veins in the earth strata thereby opening a clear path of water to flow into the well increasing the overall water yield.
Principles of Hydro-fracturing
• The Pascal Law states that, when hydraulic pressure is applied in any closed body, it acts in all directions and is equal in all points. Therefore when the high-pressure water is injected in the isolated section of the bore-well, the hydraulic pressure acting is equal.
• The injected water flows in the least resistance path and therefore the inter-section of fractures or opening of the fractures takes place in the weakest zone.
Hydro-fracturing process stimulates hydro-geological conditions of a bore-well as follows.
• Initiation and propagation of new fractures.
• The existing drainage channels accumulated by clay are cleaned.
• The pre-existing fractures are widened and smoothened.
• Improves smooth and free flow to and within the conduit system.
In a typical dry/low yielding bore well the water borne Fracture zones are identified and are subjected to high pressure water pumping to initiate, propagate, widen and extend the existing fractures.
The water pumped in the bore well under high pressure up to 3000 PSI (Pounds per Sq. inch) breaks up fissures, fractures, cracks and cleans away mud and other impurities, blockages and leads to contact with adjacent Water bearing fractures and bodies, there by improving the over all yield as the fractures are exposed to larger and extensive conduit system of fractures / aquifers.
Hydro-Fracturing is also the most effective tool for ground water recharging.
A typical Hydro-fracturing process / Methodology adopted by our company for an assured success
Initially general hydro-geological survey of the area of the selected bore well is conducted.
1. Identification of Fractures / Fracture Zone in the selected bore-well by drillers log, down-hole video inspection or by geo-physical logging.
2. Pre-yield pumping test.
3. Hydro-fracturing.
4. Post-yield pumping test.
Identification of Fractures
Driller’s logs and Geo-physical logging is sufficient to identify the fractures. However, by video inspection through down-hole TV camera it can be determined for
• The present condition & actual depth of the bore-well.
• The number of fractures present and its disposition.
• The location of clean/even surfaces available for packer setting.
Pre-yield pumping test
• With a suitable submersible pump the present actual yield of the selected bore well is determined. Details like drawdown and recovery of static water level is tabulated using electronic water level indicator.
Hydro-fracturing
• The process involves two steps namely Packer setting and high-pressure water pumping.
Packer / Packer setting
• Packer is a tool, which can be inflated and deflated hydraulically.
• A single or dual Packer may be chosen.
• This packer seals the bore-well but allows water to be pumped through a pipe passing through the packer.
• The packer is inflated hydraulically to seal the bore-well at the desired depth of fracture zone already determined by video inspection.
• The packer is generally set at 20 to 30 feet below the casing pipe or 70 to 80 feet from the ground level (to avoid weathered zone if, the depth of the casing pipe is less).
• Dual packers are used to affect and develop only the desired fracture zones chosen. Here two packers are spaced at the desired distance apart to isolate certain segments of the identified fracture zones and water is injected only between these two packers.
High Pressure water pumping
• This is carried out through a high pressure Hydro-frac pump capable of generating up to 3000 PSI (Pounds per square inch).
• Water of approx. 1500 gallons is pumped into the bore-well (through the packer piping), thus forcing the water into existing fractures at a rate faster than the fracture can accept it, there by opening and clearing the fracture paths.
• When the water is expended, the packer is dropped to a further depth of 70 to 80 feet and the process is repeated.
• Depending upon the depth of the bore-well, normally three Hydro-fracturing setting are carried out for assured result.
Post-yield pumping Test
• Is similar to pre-yield pumping test. A flow test is recorded to determine the overall improvement of the yield.
• Average Hydro-Fracturing Operational time is 3 to 4 Hours per Bore-well.
JCR DRILLSOL’ Hydro-Fracturing Unit
`JCR DRILLSOL model JCR HFU-1’ is a truck mounted Well Rehabilitation Unit designed for Hydro-fracturing of low yield bore-wells of 6 and 6½-inch diameter in hard rock formations. It also consists of yield test pumping unit with necessary instruments and tools.
Features available only in Frac-Tech model MAXFT-1
JCR HFU-1 is Hydraulically driven Hydro-Fracturing Unit operated through a transfer gearbox assembly thus eliminating an additional prime mover, space, weight and cost.
Availability of Down Hole TV Camera to identify visually the fracture zones of best result and to prevent blind entry into the unknown bore-well and dangerous setting of packer. Also, exact depth & distortion of casing pipe, static water level and bore-well depth are visualised thus eliminating any erroneous drillers log and geo-physical logging.
A separate Flow control valve is provided to engage/disengage the high pressure Hydro-frac pump ‘alone’ from the hydraulic circuit during any wrong / dangerous setting of packer.
Our basic Hydro-fracturing Unit Model `JCR HFU-1’ includes
• A Base Frame with built-in lockable storage facility for Frac pipes, Packers, submersible pumps and tools etc
• High-pressure hydro-frac pump driven hydraulically.
• 2HP Engine driven super charge (Booster) pump or Hydraulic hand pump.
• Hydraulic Power Pack.
• Hydraulically operated Winch.
• Hydraulically operated Crane.
• Hydraulic leveling jacks. 4 NOS
• Hose and Cable reels.
• Well head Assembly.
• Centralized Hydraulic controls with gauges.
• Diesel Generator 7.5 KVA.
• Submersible pump (3 H.P., 28stage).
• Truck for mounting .AL Cargo 100.12
• Night Lights
Essential tools and Accessories
• Down Hole Camera with B/W TV monitor.
• Hydraulic packers 6 inch dia – Single.
• Frac- Pipes of required quantity.
• Hydraulic inflate hose of required length.
• Electrical cable reel of required length.
• Required adapters, couplings, handling tools, protective gear and manuals etc..
Description of Main Components
High Pressure Hydro-frac Pump
Type: Two speed hydraulically driven with dual functions, break and develop. In break function the pump operates in low speed producing over 2500 PSI at 40 GPM, which is the pressure for fracturing. In well developing function the pump operates at high speed producing 500 PSI at 80 GPM, which develops the well allowing for optimal water flow
Hydraulic system Working Pressure: 3000 PSI
Crane
8 ton capacity, Hydraulically operated with manual Extension
Winch
1 Ton capacity, Hydraulically operated
Spooling capacity: 30mts / Wire rope: 13mm
Hydraulic Power Pack
Truck driven consisting Transfer gear box, Hydraulic Pump, relief valves, suction/return line filters and reservoir.
Hydraulic Hand Pump
Type/Application: Dual Displacement / Packer inflation
Working pressure: 700 bar
Super Charge (Booster) Pump
HP capacity Self-priming, engine driven with positive displacement.
Carrier
Required Engine Capacity: 110 BHP
Recommended: Ashok Leyland `Cargo’ Model: 100.12
Packer
Type: Single - Hydraulic / Diameter: 6 inches
Accessories: Rubber seals, Adapters, couplings etc.. of required sizes.
Frac Pipes
Type: Seamless of standard 15 feet length
Diameter: 1 ½ inch nominal
Working pressure: Tested & certified for 3000 PSI
Inflate Hose
Diameter: ¼ inch / Working Pressure: 700 bar
Down Hole TV Camera
Type: Video camera, water proof up to 500 feet.
Accessories: B/W TV monitor, Stand, Connectors and winch.
Generator
Type: Air cooled, Three phase, 415 VAC / Capacity: 7.5 KVA
Submersible pump
3 HP, 3-phase with electrical cable, control panel and dry run preventor.
 
 
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